Statistical Analysis Services for Research
Projects employing SPSS and LISREL
Applications, By Sourabh Kishore

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Statistical Analysis is an integral part of
Quantitative Research studies in which all the
inputs, indicators and measures are numbers
that can be represented in absolute form or in
the form of metric units. Statistical techniques
can be employed in any form of research that
deals with numbers - scientific research, social
research, management research, technical
research, psychological research,
philosophical research, etc. Fundamentally,
Statistical Analytics comprises of two types of
techniques -
Descriptive Statistical Analytics
and Inferential Statistical Analytics
. The
Descriptive Statistical Analytics are carried
out within the Research Sample that has been
collected by the researcher to represent a large
population. The attributes that are analysed in
Descriptive Statistical Analytics are: Central
Tendency of the Data Set and Dispersion
Tendency of the Data Set. The Central
Tendency is analysed using the parameters:
Mean, Median, Mode and Skewness; and the
Dispersion Tendency of the Data Set is
analysed using the parameters: Variance,
Standard Deviation and Kurtosis. The
Descriptive Statistical Analysis can result in
excellent reflections from the data sets within
the sample but they cannot be readily applied
to the entire population. There are two ways
to apply the Descriptive Statistical results to
the entire population:

Grounded Theory Approach: The data is
closely matched with past empirical results
such that the extent of similarities and
differences can be verified and conclusions
from the primary data analysis can be drawn.
Such an approach is used in Triangulation
Methodology which is the mix of Qualitative
as well as Quantitative Research
methodologies. This approach of applying
Descriptive Statistical data on the entire
population is employed in scientific as well as
phenomenology research techniques and is
normally employed in the Interpretive and
Realism Philosophical approaches to
conducting the research.

Inferential Statistical Analytics: The
Descriptive Statistical analytics can be applied
to the entire population by carrying out
additional statistical analytics that are
primarily employed to prove or reject
Hypotheses. Some of the examples are:
Chi-Square test, ANOVA, ACOVA,
Regression Tests, Student's T test, etc. The
Inferential Statistical analytics are employed
in pure quantitative research studies in which
all the results are based on statistical analytics
only and human interpretations of the textual
responses are not employed. These techniques
is employed in Positivist's approach of
conducting the research.

In scientific research studies, the input data
can be obtained from experiments conducted
in laboratories or from simulation outcomes.
In management and social research studies,
the input data can be obtained from the
output of Likert Scale which is normally
embedded as the part of Structured
Questionnaire. Likert Scale can be employed
for Triangulation methodology as well as
Quantitative methodology. Some qualitative
researchers also prefer to use Likert scale to
enhance their interpretations of the results but
they do not conduct statistical analysis of the

We can help you to conduct both Descriptive
and Inferential statistical analysis for your
Research Project. The process followed is the

(a) You may send us your primary research
data in whatever form you have collected - in
hard copies (scanned), in MS Word tables or
in MS Excel sheets.

(b) We will organise the data in a separate MS
Excel sheet in such a way that it can be readily
imported into SPSS or LISREL. If there are
any errors in the primary data, we will help
you to rectify them.

(c) We will help you to import data in the
SPSS or LISREL package on your computer
(you will need to have a licensed copy of SPSS
or LISREL Academic version on your
computer) and will help you to generate the
results in tables as well as graphs. Please note
that LISREL is for validating multivariate
structural constructs
through factor analysis
and structural equation modeling.

(d) We will conduct an analysis of the data
and write the report which will be sent to you.
If you want us to analyse the data with respect
to the Literature Review carried out by you,
we can do so at additional costs.

The cost of our efforts will depend upon the
sample size and the corresponding data
volumes that needs to be organised in MS
Excel and then imported into SPSS on your
computer for descriptive and inferential
statistical analysis and LISREL for
multivariate statistical analysis. The cost will
also depend upon whether you only want
descriptive statistical analysis (mostly used in
"Triangulation" or "Mixed" methodology) or
want to conduct inferential statistical analysis
as well (mostly used in "Pure Quantitative"
methodology, i.e., research studies that
require proving or rejecting hypotheses). For
grounded theory approach (comparing the
primary data and its statistical analytics with
past empirical theories) and for writing up the
entire report, the charges shall be extra based
on the number of words required by the
customer. We can also evolve the conclusions
and generalisations based on our analysis and
present to you our opinion in the write up.
You may however like to confirm yourself if
our opinion justifies your research aims and
objectives. We will take accountability of the
accuracy of all analytics and the conclusions
drawn but the final success will depend upon
whether your research aims and objectives
have been met or not.
Please contact us at or to
discuss your topic or to get
ideas about your subject
area and our academic help
for SPSS statistical
modeling and analysis
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