Keywords applicable to this article: WiMAX, WiFi, IEEE 802.11 family, 3G, 4G, LTE, LTE
Advanced, Voice over IP (VoIP), Satellite Communications, IP Multimedia Subsystem, Location
Based Services, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Quality of Service (QoS), Wireless Sensor
Networking (WSN), OPNET Modeler academic edition, wireless network modeling, wireless
network simulation

By:
Professor Nand Kishore Prasad, Principal Consulting Officer
Updated by: Sourabh Kishore, Chief Consulting Officer
Topic development for Research Projects in Theses and
Dissertations related to Modern Applied Wireless
Communications Engineering and Related Technologies.
Academicians and students have significantly contributed to the field of wireless communications for past many years. A large number of dissertations
and thesis reports have been published incorporating results of laboratory experiments and simulations that have proved to be very useful in
determining the actual performance of the technologies amidst all the marketing claims made by the OEMs and Service Providers. In addition, we
should not undermine the fact that the academic world has been elementary in development of new technologies that have shaped the future of wireless
communications. I want to specifically mention about the development of Wireless Sensor Networking under various projects sponsored by IEEE and
ZigBee Alliance and such other organisations that have finally resulted in open global standards like ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 and the company
sponsored proprietary standards like Texas Instruments SimpliciTI and XBee DigiMesh. These technologies employ a number of algorithms/protocols
like ANT COLONY, SPIN, GOSSIP, FLOOD, etc. that have been developed by students of higher studies in wireless communications. In this article, I
hereby present some modern challenges that the students may like to undertake for their forthcoming dissertation and theses research projects:

(A) Advancements in WiMAX and LTE/LTE-A technologies and their applications pertaining to fixed and mobile wireless communications - The
Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology developed by 4G Americas (formerly 3G Americas) is based on the world class HSPA+ (High Speed Packet
Access Plus) technology. Its earlier variant HSPA is the foundation of the widely successful 3G services framework across the world. LTE is perceived to
be the most valid contender of 4G services framework but is facing strong competition from IEEE 802.16e-2005 which is the standard for Mobile
WiMAX. How have these technologies evolved since their inception in mobile and fixed wireless communications? There can be multiple global as well
as regional studies that can be conducted pertaining to this context. One may also like to write dissertations/theses on case studies of world class
technology and telecom services companies that are promoting these technologies - like Nokia, Motorola, Ericsson, Vodafone, Alcatel-Lucent, British
Telecom, etc. Some of the suggested study areas on LTE and WiMax technological evolution are the following:

(1) Advancements in multiple input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna technologies, and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) in
modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A (LTE-A is the abbreviation for LTE Advanced)
(2) Frameworks for aggregation of carriers in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(3) Advancements in relaying standards in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(4) Advancements in quality of service settings and delivery in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(5) Designs and service delivery of mobile video streaming and conferencing services in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(6) Advancements in management of interferences in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(7) Self-Learning fault tolerance frameworks in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(8) Capacity evaluation and management in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(9) Signal strengths measurements and fingerprinting methods in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(10) Location-based subscriber directories and their integration with global address registries in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(11) The quest between WiMax and LTE/LTE-A pertaining to future mobile Internet and broadband applications
(12) Mobile handover at high vehicular speeds in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(13) Strategies for positioning, activating, and integrating relay stations in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(15) Strategies for designing and service delivery of private mobile subscribers cloud using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(16) Energy efficiency and on-demand scalability in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(17) Designing and adaptive allocation of services and resources in IPTV networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(18) Study of mobile broadband video services architecture, designing, and components in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(19) Is UMTS fully obsolete? Technologies and components of legacy UMTS designs in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(20) Mobile broadband designs, customisations, and rapid handovers for bullet trains travelling at more than 200 Kms/hr using WiMax and
LTE/LTE-A
(21) Self-Organising Networks (SONs) and rapid handovers at high speeds in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(22) Internetworking between LTE/LTE-A/WiMax and 3G networks using SIP-based IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) signalling: coexistence of past
mobile technologies with future
(23) Solving the conflicting objectives of advanced encrypton and quality of service in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(24) Advanced service classes and improved quality of service in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(25) Dynamic network selection based on energy and mobility pattern awareness in a hybrid network environment comprising WiMax, WiFi, and
LTE/LTE-A
(26) Privacy-aware group handover mechanisms in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(27) Data traffic measurements and QoS optimisation for multi-tier customers in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(28) Architecture, design, and implementation of femtocells in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(29) Security threats and controls in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(30) Review of WiMax coding standards and study of different performances under different modulations and coding
(31) Path loss modeling and avoidance techniques in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(32) Closed group private mobility with high security for mission critical applications in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(33) Mobile handover techniques in difficult terrains having varying tower heights in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(34) Optimisation of base stations for high performance location-based services in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(35) Review of adaptive modulation and coding in WiMax and its real world applications
(36) Multiple gateway admission control in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A
(37) Desired technical characteristics and capabilities of next generation mobility networks for on demand multimedia streaming and content delivery
(38) Study of design and implementation of microstrip antennas in modern 4G networks using LTE, LTE-A, WiMAX, and WiFi
(39) Fair resource allocation and quality of service for downlink traffic in WiMax networking
(40) Mobile IPv6 in mobile vehicular networks with dynamic location-based services in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE/LTE-A

The above study areas have been proposed keeping the scopes of LTE, LTE-A, and WiMax technologies in mind. However, you may not be able to study
the three technological areas in a single research given their vastness and differences, unless you are conducting comparative studies. Hence, you may
consider narrowing down your topic to a specific technology and its specific scenarios under study. All the above study areas can use models in the
latest academic release of OPNET Modeler by Riverbed Software Inc. through OPNET university program (OPNET has been acquired by Riverbed
Software).

In addition to the suggestions above, please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net to get more
topic suggestions and to discuss your topic.

(B) Evolution of IP Multimedia Subsystem in modern mobile IP networks - ETCO India has already published a copyrighted research paper on
differences between IMS and traditional IP multimedia (please visit: ETCO India Published Research Papers). The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) has
distinct and standardised architectures, configurations, traffic management, Quality of Service, Protocols, Handshakes, Communications, Registries,
and Applications. It has evolved alongside mobile networking technologies and is currently highly portable on the existing 4G platforms. Some of the
suggested study areas on IP Multimedia Subsystem technological evolution are the following:

(1) Authentication, authorisation, and access protocols of IP Multimedia Subsystem in LTE networks
(2) Architectural components of IP Multimedia Subsystem and its deployment in modern 4G networks using WiMax and LTE
(3) Context awareness in IP Multimedia Subsystem in heterogeneous 4G networks
(4) A study of next generation multimedia services in IP Multimedia Subsystem on 4G networks
(5) Design and deployment of IPTV services in IP Multimedia Subsystem on 4G networks
(6) IP Multimedia Subsystem on mobile cloud computing on 4G networks
(7) Adoption of IP Multimedia Subsystem architecture and design in multimedia content distribution and multimedia streaming in 4G Americas and
ITU-T mobile multimedia service delivery standards
(8) Mobile networking virtualisation architectures in mobile cloud computing for IP Multimedia Subsystem and its mobile multimedia services
(9) Evolution of IP Multimedia Subsystem in 5G mobile multimedia services
(10) Advancements of network-aware handover of IP Multimedia Subsystem streaming services in heterogeneous 4G networks
(11) Synergies among multiple wireless communication technologies for IP Multimedia Subsystem-WiFi, WiMax, UMTS, and LTE: evolution of
heterogeneous multimedia streaming and content delivery networks
(12) Study of Security threats and advanced security controls in IP Multimedia Subsystem on heterogeneous 4G networks
(13) Adaptive bandwidth allocation and Quality of Experience (QoE, QoX, or simply QX) in IP Multimedia Subsystem on heterogeneous 4G networks
(14) Quality optimisation of Voice and Video over IP in IP Multimedia Subsystem on heterogeneous 4G networks
(15) Design and applications of IPv6-based Wireless Sensor Networking for running IP Multimedia Subsystem services
(16) Convergence of IP Multimedia Subsystem services through integrated wired and wireless networks in IPTV service delivery
(17) Distributed multimedia applications of IP Multimedia Subsystem in mobile cloud computing on heterogeneous 4G networks
(18) Application of IP Multimedia Subsystem in closed group mission critical multimedia applications on heterogeneous 4G networks
(19) Sessions and calls control protocols in global IP Multimedia Subsystem multiparty sessions on heterogeneous 4G networks
(20) Collaborative group conferencing in global IP Multimedia Subsystem multiparty sessions on heterogeneous 4G networks
(21) Applications for integrating IP Multimedia Subsystem and Internet of Things on heterogeneous 4G networks
(22) Quality of Experience (QoE, QoX, or simply QX) enabled social multimedia content delivery in IP Multimedia Subsystem on heterogeneous 4G
networks
(23) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based dynamic handover of multimedia sessions in heterogeneous 4G networks using IP Multimedia Subsystem
(24) Real-time multimedia communications in high speed vehicular networks using IP Multimedia Subsystem
(25) Unified public safety communications networking using IP Multimedia Subsystem on heterogeneous 4G mobile networks
(26) Integrating SIP address space with IPv6 addressing in IP Multimedia Subsystem networking

While majority of the study areas suggested above are proposed with an assumption that IP Multimedia Subsystem works on heterogeneous 4G
networks, you may narrow down your study confined to specific 4G networks and their designs. All the above study areas can use models in the latest
academic release of OPNET Modeler by Riverbed Software Inc. through OPNET university program (OPNET has been acquired by Riverbed Software).

In addition to the suggestions above, please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net to get more
topic suggestions and to discuss your topic.

Dear Visitor: Please visit the page detailing SUBJECT AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION pertaining to our services to view the broader perspective of our
offerings for Dissertations and Thesis Projects. Please also visit the page having
TOPICS DELIVERED by us.

Apologies for the Interruption!! Please continue reading!!

(C) Evolution of IEEE 802.11 WiFi technologies in the 4G era: especially IEEE 802.11ax, 802.11ad, and 802.11ah - IEEE 802.11 has evolved significantly
in the 4G era and has found a role in the heterogeneous 4G networks for delivery mobile multimedia services. Some of the suggested study areas on IEEE
802.11 technological evolution in the 4G era are the following:

(1) Review and evaluation of design specifications and performance of IEEE 802.11ad and IEEE 802.11ac multi-gbps and IEEE 802.11ah
machine-to-machine WiFi communications
(2) Modelling of machine-to-machine communications in industrial engineering: applying IEEE 802.11ah for smart machines
(3) Exploiting multi-gbps WiFi for private mobile cloud computing
(4) Analysing the application of IEEE 802.11af in White-Space spectrum sharing for unlicensed Radio broadcasting and TV telecasting
(5) Long distance wireless communications modelling using IEEE 802.11dcf and IEEE 802.11ah
(6) Using multi-gbps WiFi connections as LTE backhauls for metropolitan broadband services distribution
(7) Offloading of LTE traffic on multi-gigabit WiFi networks for broadband services delivery in high subscriber concentration zones
(8) Energy efficient designs and network implementation using latest IEEE 802.11 standards
(9) Reliable routing protocols in smart machine-to-machine mesh networks using multi-gigabit WiFi standards
(10) Multi-gigabit WiFi standards and Internet of Things in a smart mesh industrial network
(11) Next generation WiFi LAN designing and evaluation using IEEE 802.11ax standard
(12) Building a heterogeneous wireless broadband network by combining LTE, WiFi, and Zigbee for on-demand high-load multimedia applications
(13) Users' QoS maximisation in LTE to WiFi offloading for premium multimedia users in a heterogeneous network environment
(14) Vehicular mobile network clouds using LTE and multi-gigabit WiFi in a heterogeneous wireless networking environment
(15) Indoor GPS networking using location-aware 3D spatial modelling using multi-gigabit WiFi standards
(16) Multi-gigabit WiFi networking and machine-to-machine communications in a smart grid system with long distance data transmissions
(17) WiFi small cellular networks for high capacity offloading from LTE networks for distributing location-aware indoor 3D spatial applications
(18) Vehicular access systems using long distance IEEE 802.11 standards in a highway network environment
(19) Multi-gigabit WiFi-enabled content delivery in vehicular area networks
(20) Indoor location-based services in WiFi-enabled indoor GPS networking
(21) Asset management in a multi-echelon supply network using RFID systems integrated through long distance WiFi networking standards
(22) Virtualisation solutions in WiFi networking for mobile cloud computing
(23) Performance comparison of Voice-and-Video-over-IP over WiFi and over WiMax in a modelling and simulation test bed
(24) Mobility pattern awareness in heterogeneous network environments comprising LTE, WiMax, and WiFi
(25) Roles and deployments of IEEE 802.11 multi-gigabit standards in the 5G LTE evolution
(26) Study of Security threats and Security controls in IEEE 802.11 multi-gigabit and long distance standards

All the study areas suggested above in the context of modern WiFi standards and networking are broad study domains that comprise multiple narrow
topics. All the above study areas can use models in the latest academic release of OPNET Modeler by Riverbed Software Inc. through OPNET university
program (OPNET has been acquired by Riverbed Software). The editable WiFi network objects in OPNET can be used to configure exact existing
standards'-based or projected future standards' specifications.

In addition to the suggestions above, please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net to get more
topic suggestions and to discuss your topic.

(D) QoS for VoIP over Satellite links - connecting high altitude cities to the metropolitan cities over mobile telephony. - ETCO India has supported
many students on this topic. Later on, I realised that this topic, that had become dormant many years back, is getting active once again due to some
scintillating innovations in high latency VoIP QoS settings for acceptable voice quality over satellite networks. Hence, it is worthwhile to research this
subject area further on many aspects. Regions that are located at very high altitudes (like Alaska, Leh, Laddakh, Tibet, etc.) still find satellite
communications as more reliable compared to terrestrial communications for voice and data connectivity. But the quality of service has always
remained a problem. In light of the new innovations in VoIP QoS (like Packet Segmentation and Re-assembly, Slot Feathering, Single Hop Satellite
communications optimised for VoIP, etc.), they may find a new era of quality of service over satellite communications and hence may communicate
better with the world. Some of the suggested study areas on Satellite communications' technological evolution in the 4G era are the following:

(1) Study of voice codecs and congestion control protocols in VoIP over satellite communications
(2) High efficiency multimedia streaming over satellite links through direct spectrum division and Multi Giga Hertz extremely high frequency bands
(3) Designing and implementation of heterogeneous broadband mobile networking by combining satellite communications at Multi Giga Hertz
extremely high frequency bands with Multi-Gigabit WiFi networks and LTE Advanced
(4) Integrating mobile networks of multiple hill station cities through satellite backhaul connections at Multi Giga Hertz extremely high frequency bands
(5) Mission-critical multimedia applications using satellite communications at Multi Giga Hertz extremely high frequency bands
(6) Effective integration between LTE Advanced and Satellite communications Multi Giga Hertz extremely high frequency bands for mobile networks in
difficult terrains
(7) Mobile satellite backhauls for emergency communications and mission critical news media coverage
(8) Virtualisation of heterogeneous networking using Multi-Gigabit WiFi and Multi Giga Hertz satellite communications at extremely high frequency
bands through Software Defined Networking (SDN)
(9) Network planning and programming for heterogeneous networking using Multi-Gigabit WiFi and Multi Giga Hertz satellite communications at
extremely high frequency bands through Software Defined Networking (SDN)
(10) UMTS and Satellite communications integration with advanced QoS configurations for VoIP
(11) Study of designs and solutions of broadband multimedia content delivery through offloading from Satellite networks with Multi Giga Hertz
satellite communications at extremely high frequency bands to multi-gigabit WiFi
(12) Micro satellite terminals with code division multiple access (CDMA) as broadband access points for Satellite Internet in difficult terrain areas
(13) Satellite communications dispatchers for field access systems in mobile mission critical and disaster relief applications
(14) Adaptive modulation methods and encoding schemes in broadband satellite communications
(15) Digital video broadcasting with QoS guarantee in broadband satellite communications using Multi Giga Hertz satellite communications at
extremely high frequency bands as uplinks and code division multiple access micro satellite terminals at downlinks
(16) Multi-programmed TV broadcasting with user access privileges in a heterogeneous networking environment using Multi Giga Hertz satellite
communications at extremely high frequency bands and offloading to Multi-Gigabit WiFi terminals covering multiple broadband subscribers

All the study areas suggested above in the context of modern broadband satellite communications standards and networking are broad study domains
that comprise multiple narrow topics. All the above study areas can use models in the latest academic release of OPNET Modeler by Riverbed Software
Inc. through OPNET university program (OPNET has been acquired by Riverbed Software). The editable Satellite communications network objects in
OPNET can be used to configure exact existing standards'-based or projected future standards' specifications.

In addition to the suggestions above, please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net to get more
topic suggestions and to discuss your topic.

(E) Applications of mobile technologies - In past few academic sessions, I have realised that students are demanding topics on applications of mobile
technologies in various applications, like - wireless sensor networking, distance learning over Internet (E-Learning), asset management, location based
services, crisis management, transportation, GPS applications, logistics and supply chain management, retail stores (supermarkets and hypermarkets),
vehicle tracking, university campus networking, mobile ERPs/CRMs in corporations, public sector infrastructure projects, healthcare, etc. A large
number of topics can be designed on positioning a specific mobile technology for a specific application, and simulating the same in the laboratory. The
modelling can be done on OPNET Modeler.

(F) Cisco IOS based networking projects employing Cisco Packet Tracer - You can design multiple research topics on accurate implementation of
wireless networks by modelling Cisco products, and configure the entire network by modelling exact product configurations, connectivity and IOS
commands on Cisco Packet Tracer. You can run multiple tests on Cisco Packet Tracer, in exactly the same way as they are executed in real world Cisco
projects. In fact, this approach of doing research is one step ahead of OPNET, at the data link, network and transport layers. The students undergoing
advanced networking courses may find this method very interesting and challenging. Such learning opportunities can significantly help you in your
career as well, because you will be an expert of the latest Cisco configurations and commands for configuring, testing and managing a wireless network.
In addition, the topics will be original because not many dissertation/thesis projects have been conducted using Cisco Packet Tracer. Please contact me
for more ideas on this aspect.

A number of professional researches have been published to address these areas recently. Many of them claim to be unbiased. ETCO India has also
contributed by publishing reports in these areas (ETCO India Published Research Papers). But I personally feel that the academic researchers, that are
known to conduct more unbiased and valid studies, have not yet contributed adequately to these areas. I suggest that students undergoing advanced
courses in wireless communications should develop new topics in these areas and conduct researches for their forthcoming dissertation and thesis
research projects. If all the current challenges are brought to the table, I can visualise hundreds of topics on which the students and academic
researchers can undertake research assignments. Some of these topics have already been undertaken by students but more contribution is required from
the academic world. Tools like OPNET MODELER can be employed to simulate various real life networking solutions to verify the behaviour and
performance of modern wireless technologies in a laboratory environment. I personally like OPNET MODELER because of its capability of simulating
real world wireless products (like Cisco Aironet series). OPNET MODELER academic edition is offered free of cost to students by RIVERBED Inc. under
their university program. The academic version possesses all the features of OPNET except that it can simulate the maximum of 50 million events which
is, however, more than sufficient to simulate any network model created for academic research.
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Please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net to discuss
your topic or to get ideas about new topics pertaining to your subject area.
Please contact us at consulting@etcoindia.co or consulting@etcoindia.net
to discuss your topic or to get ideas about new topics pertaining to your
subject area.